Cross-Domain standard essential patents (SEPs), in the current context, denote the patents essential to two or more diverse domains that have distinct standards developed by different Standard Setting Organizations (SSOs). The concept originates from the idea that, despite the difference in standards, the domains are based on similar core technologies. So, the patents essential to the common core technologies in turn will be essential to both domains and, hence, can be termed Cross-Domain SEPs.
V2X, or Vehicle-to-Everything, is on the horizon to revolutionize vehicular technology by enabling interaction between vehicles and their environment. The first communication standard for V2X, IEEE 802.11p: WAVE (Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments), was standardized by IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) in 2010 for WLAN-based V2X communication. The terms DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication), WAVE, 802.11p, WLAN based V2X have been used by experts interchangeably to refer to this standard. Alternatively, 3GPP (3rd Generation Partnership Project) started standardization of C-V2X (Cellular-V2X) with Release 14, which was related to LTE V2X. This was followed by Release 15 with added compatibility of 5G to V2X, Release 16, adding 5G NR V2X, and Release 17 related to enhancement in 5G NR V2X and beyond.