Congressman Issa calls patent trolls and plaintiffs interchangeable during ITC hearing

Congressman Darrell Issa

Congressman Darrell Issa

On April 14th the House’s Judiciary Committee’s Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property and the Internet convened for a hearing focused on the topic of patent litigation at the United States International Trade Commission (ITC).

The Subcommittee is Chaired by Congressman Darrell Issa (R-CA), who has been an outspoken advocate for the need for more patent reform in order to provide relief from those he believes are abusing the patent litigation system — those sometimes called patent trolls. Indeed, from the start of the Thursday’s hearing, the debate regarding patent infringement at the ITC was couched in the language of the patent troll debate. For example, during his opening statement Congressman Issa rather imperiously stated: “for purposes of my opening statement ‘plaintiff’ and ‘troll’ will be interchangeable.”


Did Issa admit that he is a patent troll?

Prior to becoming a Member of Congress Darrell Issa was a very successful inventor. Issa, himself a patent owner, was forced to litigate against companies that pirated technology covered by his patents. As a patent owner forced to sue at numerous infringers, it would seem that Congressman Issa believes that patent owner and inventor Issa was a patent troll because he was a plaintiff who had the audacity to assert his patent rights against others.

In recent years Congressman Issa, who should be a natural ally of innovators and patent owners given that is how he made his millions prior to running for Congress, has become a champion for what many patent owners refer to as the infringer lobby. It is difficult to understand why Issa seems to so loathe patent owners when he himself was a patent owner who successfully sued infringers for patent infringement, the very thing he seems to find so egregiously offensive these days.

In any event, if Issa is going to use the terms patent troll and plaintiff interchangeably then we should fairly understand that as an admission against self-interest. By Issa’s own definition he was himself a patent troll. Perhaps his deep hatred for patent trolls, or in other words patent owners who must sue infringers (i.e., plaintiffs) speaks volumes about how terrible he feels about the abuse he brought to bear against those helpless infringers he so aggressively pursued many years ago.



Behind the scenes

Although his profile has greatly diminished within Republican ranks since he lost the Chairman’s gavel on the House Oversight Committee, Issa would like nothing more than to pass substantive changes to the patent litigation process that make it much harder for patent owners to successfully sue those who pirate their technology.
Much of the testimony and questioning at the hearing focused on the attractiveness of the ITC as a venue for patent infringement litigation and the potential that abusive litigation techniques could be carried out as a result of ITC proceedings. The ITC, if available as a forum for patent owners, is particularly attractive because injunctive remedies are actually obtainable. The ITC is not required to apply the Supreme Court’s decision in eBay v. MercExchange, which effectively makes injunctive relief for victorious patent owners virtually impossible even though by its very nature a patent is an exclusive right granted by the federal government.
Make no mistake about it, attempts to change the laws pertaining to patent litigation at the ITC is a frontal attack on the last remaining useful rights of patent owners to stop infringement. That is why those within the infringer lobby are so keenly interested in having the ITC wane as a forum for patent disputes, which would be yet another in a long line of significant blows against innovators.

Although a previously introduced trade protection bill relating to the topic of the hearing was discussed, it’s worth noting that there does not seem to be a companion bill currently in the U.S. Senate. It is also at least a little strange that a Subcommittee of the House Judiciary Committee would be focusing on this ITC issue given that jurisdiction over matters of trade, including the budget for the International Trade Commission, falls under the House Committee on Ways and Means.

It is also worth noting that House Judiciary Committee chairman Bob Goodlatte (R-VA) made an appearance at this Subcommittee hearing despite the fact that he is not a Member of the Subcommittee. Goodlatte continued to beat the drum on the effects of abusive patent litigation on our country’s economy, especially where patent owners are looking to exact settlements just under the cost of litigation. “This type of tactic made the ITC a potentially attractive venue for patent infringement cases,” Goodlatte said. He made recommendations that the ITC should return to its pre-2010 domestic industry standard, apply public interest and economic interests tests at the beginning of Section 337 cases and an articulation of standards clarifying which patent disputes should be at the ITC and which in the federal court system.
Given the apparent lack of a companion Senate bill, the fact that Ways and Means has jurisdiction over the ITC, and the fact that Goodlatte made a special appearance, it seems quite possible (if not likely) that Congressman Issa’s Subcommittee was engaging in a bit of grandstanding on the issue, perhaps in an attempt encourage patent reform supporters despite the stalling of both the Innovation Act and the PATENT Act.


Section 337 investigations

A great deal of focus during the hearing was placed upon Section 337 investigations conducted by the ITC to look into complaints alleging unfair practices in import trade. A high percentage of Section 337 investigations involve allegations of patent infringement, greater than 80 percent of all such proceedings according to written testimony submitted by Dominic Bianchi, General Counsel of the ITC. A statistics report on Section 337 investigations at the ITC show a spike of 70 Section 337 cases instituted at the ITC in 2011, rising up from less than 10 cases instituted in 1999.

At least some of the basis for this steep increase in Section 337 cases was attributed at multiple points to consequences resulting in the U.S. Supreme Court’s 2006 decision in eBay v. MercExchange. Prior to eBay, a victorious plaintiff in a patent infringement litigation was granted an injunction as a matter of right, which makes all the sense in the world given that an injunction is just a court order prohibiting certain defined action and a patent is by its very nature a grant of an exclusive right that is supposed to prevent that very same defined action. In reaching its decision in eBay, the Supreme Court required a four-part test typically required to obtain injunctions in other matters, which increases the burden on a patent owner seeking injunction. The net effect is that a victorious patent owner most frequently does not receive an injunction, which means the losing defendant is free to continue infringing, thereby turning the U.S. patent system into a compulsory licensing system.
Issa also spoke of cases that he sees having no place being litigated at ITC, especially those cases involving American companies on both sides of the argument. ITC decisions in Kodak’s 2010 suit against Apple and RIM over a digital image preview technology, as well as in Broadcom’s 2007 ITC victory over Qualcomm barring importation of chips and downstream products like cell phones, were not cases where a foreign entity with assets that couldn’t be reached was involved, Issa said. “Should Broadcom and Qualcomm be in the ITC while simultaneously in district court?” Issa asked. “They’re in the ITC because they wanted to use it as part of the leverage and bring about a settlement.”



The Witnesses

“The ITC is an expert trade agency which provides effective remedy against infringing imports,” said Deanna Okun, a former ITC chairwoman testifying on behalf of her own perspective based on her time serving on the ITC. Weakening U.S. trade protections by reducing the ITC’s ability to bar infringing imports would send the wrong message, she said. Between 2008 and 2015, Okun said that 80 percent of products for which Section 337 investigations were filed came from China, suggesting that a great majority of the ITC’s relatively small caseload was focused on foreign entities. “The data does not support that the ITC has a patent troll problem,” Okun said.

John Thorne, panel witness

John Thorne, panel witness

The uniquely leveraging power of ITC decisions in patent infringement cases were one reason why such a venue would be so attractive to patent owners, according to testimony given by John Thorne, partner at Kellogg Huber Hansen Todd Evans & Figel, PLLC. Thorne gave an example involving television set top boxes, a consumer product, which may involve technologies protected by many hundreds of patents held by a myriad of companies. A district court ruling could find that patent infringement could occur and yet not issue an injunction if the court decides that disrupting a cable company’s ability to import more set top boxes to add customers would harm the public good. Thorne also noted that the ITC was about half as likely as district courts to throw out a patent case on charges of patent invalidity.

Mark Whitaker, partner at Morrison & Foerster LLP and President-Elect of the American Intellectual Property Law Association (AIPLA), discussed changes to Section 337 proceedings which would be enacted by proposed bill H.R.4829, the Trade Protection Not Troll Protection Act. This act would create a higher burden for a plaintiff at the ITC to argue that injunctive relief is required to protect genuine domestic industries by eliminating that plaintiff’s ability to rely solely on licensing activities to argue a genuine domestic industry. Whitaker indicated that changes resulting from passage H.R.4829 would improve ITC access for universities and other entities without a great deal of capital.

Dr. Fiona Scott Morton, panel witness

Dr. Fiona Scott Morton, panel witness

In the mind of Dr. Fiona Scott Morton, economics professor at the Yale School of Management, the duplicative nature of ITC and district court proceedings naturally results in forum shopping. Further, the leverage afforded by injunctive relief at the ITC creates a distortion in U.S. contractual negotiations over IP royalties. “Instead of charging 50 cents in royalties on a $600 device, the risk of exclusion is like a $600 royalty,” Morton said. Obviously, Morton was vastly exaggerating to the point of absurdity given no one would ask for, receive or pay a $600 royalty for a $600 product. What Morton seemed to miss is the essential nature of a patent, which is an exclusionary right. At least in theory, the way the patent grant was historically created gave the patent owner the right to simply say no, you can’t do that no matter how much of a royalty you are willing to pay. That is what it means to be an exclusive right, although over the last 10 years Congress, the Supreme Court and the Federal Circuit have done their level best to nearly completely eradicate the “exclusive” from the “right” when it comes to patents.

Morton also spoke to issues posed by allegations of patent infringement in situations where standard-essential patents (SEPs) are involved. Morton argued that injunctive relief from the ITC on such patents was inappropriate because these parties holding patents essential to standards like Bluetooth or LTE networks have usually agreed to fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND) royalty agreements to be part of that standard. Instead, those cases should be handled in the federal courts. Interestingly, a statement released by InterDigital CEO Bill Merritt refutes Morton’s statement on the grounds that standard-essential patents are awarded globally, making it difficult for an American court to assess global damages. “The simplest answer to all of Ms. Scott Morton’s concerns regarding the potential for lopsided negotiations given the alleged market power of SEPs is to compel the parties to arbitration and remove the economic determination of FRAND from the hands of either party,” Merritt’s statement reads.

Frankly, there is something that just sounds silly saying that an essential patent is one that shouldn’t receive injunctive protection as a remedy. KSR v. Teleflex was ostensibly to prevent trivial patents from issuing, and now we want to make the most important — “essential patents” by name — weaker than some nice but not particularly paradigm shifting incremental innovation? Sometimes it seems that the patent critics haven’t really thought through what they are saying very well because when you actually say it out loud it just sounds ridiculous.

Since the spike in Section 337 cases instituted in 2011, the ITC has taken measures within its agency designed to reduce the chances that a party would bring forth frivolous claims in patent infringement charges filed at the ITC. Some of these were brought up by Thomas Stoll, principal at Stoll IP Consulting. For one, the ITC has heightened its requirements for proving a domestic industry for the alleged infringing product, required for a Section 337 proceeding. The ITC has also instituted a 100 day pilot program for early determination of specific and potentially case-dispositive issues in an effort to minimize costs for all parties and reduce the chances that a party could leverage a drawn out litigation process to extort a positive outcome. “A reduction in cases instituted appears to have gone far to address concerns that the ITC has become a venue for patent owners with cases without merit,” Stoll said.

Questions on balancing of equities were brought up by Congressman Jerrold Nadler (D-NY), who found issues with the fact that the balancing of equities required of Article III courts, such as the federal courts, was not required of Article I courts such as those implemented at agencies like the ITC. In response, Thorne evidenced a little bit of confusion to Nadler’s remarks as he noted that aspects of Section 337 enables the ITC to consider all equitable defenses in response to the finding that a violation has occurred. Okun noted that as part of the ITC’s Section 337 proceedings, a public interest test is considered, and the sitting U.S. President always has the power to overturn an ITC exclusion order for any policy reason whatsoever.



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Join the Discussion

16 comments so far.

  • [Avatar for Edward Heller]
    Edward Heller
    April 19, 2016 02:16 pm

    anon, I agree. If a patent owner can only get RR damages and the same ongoing royalty that everyone else pays, the efficient infringer can ignore a notice of infringement with impunity. The efficient infringer can choose to litigate or settle at their option because there is no threat of an injunction or a high ongoing royalty.

    But from the patent owner’s point of view, he has to go through a lawsuit every time he wants a big boy to pay, and then does not recover his cost of suit. This provides the big boy with every incentive to maximize the litigation costs of the patent owner to effectively immunize themselves from the patent system.

    The system does appear to be rigged against patent owners.

  • [Avatar for Anon]
    April 18, 2016 07:54 pm

    Thanks for the article Mr. Heller

    Prior to my reading it though, I would add that there is a rather surprising tendency (well, not really) to see the academic views and their offspring concerning the basics of normal equity and the distinct nature of the patent right (which is a negative right rather than a positive right).

    Under normal circumstances it is true that the equitable tool of injunction is among the harshest available.

    But it is a serious mistake to simply note that and then NOT note an even more basic principle of equity: making the transgressed as whole as possible.

    There is where the nature of the patent right being a negative right shines through.

    There is no more pure and better alignment with what the right is than an injunction. Such is simply the best way to make the transgressed whole.

    Some would “spin” this and say that this is “leverage” rather than “equity.” and my reply would be yes, this is indeed leverage, AND this is the highest form of equity (contrast sharply with the traditional “harshest”), exactly because this form of equity is closely aligned with what the patent right is.

    The high leverage principle is meant to be there – that is the design of the patent system and its foundation of exclusivity.

    The “Infringer’s Rights” very vocal and persistent propaganda machine simply does not want anyone focusing on these basic principles.

  • [Avatar for Edward Heller]
    Edward Heller
    April 18, 2016 07:04 pm

    Efficient infringement, like efficient contract breach, is the name of the game.

    Specific performance, an equitable concept, has been argued as getting in the way of efficient breach and thus undermining efficient breach. Eisenberg, Melvin A. “Actual and Virtual Specific Performance, the Theory of Efficient Breach, and the Indifference Principle in Contract Law.” California Law Review 93.4 (2005): 975-1050.

    In the same way, injunctions get in the way of efficient infringement.

    Let us all recognize the game being played here.

    Also note that the policy is being advocated by Berkeley.

    Let is all also agree that proving patent damages is very difficult and is the reason that for more than 100 years the only remedy patent owner’s sought was the injunction which was all but automatically granted to prevent future infringement to which the infringer has no legal right.

  • [Avatar for Edward Heller]
    Edward Heller
    April 18, 2016 03:51 pm

    Ternary@9. There is “no” conspiracy. The policy objectives have been there since circa 1990, where, in exchange for European cooperation on TRIPS, the US agreed to harmonize with Europe. Thus, first-to-file, 20-year from filing, publication, and of course, post grant oppositions and revocation proceedings. Actung!

    Harmonization only benefits large international filers; but of course, who runs US patent law?

  • [Avatar for staff]
    April 18, 2016 02:39 pm

    “for purposes of my opening statement ‘plaintiff’ and ‘troll’ will be interchangeable.”

    It’s the same old shell game from large multinational invention thieves. If there aren’t facts to support your arguments, manufacture them.

    Call it what you will…patent hoarder, patent troll, non-practicing entity, shell company, etc. It all means one thing: “we’re using your invention and we’re not going to stop or pay”. It’s a pure red herring by large invention thieves and their paid puppets to kill any inventor support system. Their goal is to legalize theft. For the last several years now they have been ransacking and looting small entities taking everything they can carry. The fact is, many of the large multinationals and their puppets who defame inventors in this way themselves make no products in the US or create any American jobs and it is their continued blatant theft which makes it impossible for the true creators to do so. Invention thieves well know many inventors lack the resources to enforce their patent rights so their only recourse is to sell to or partner with others who do have the resources. Otherwise, large invention thieves just thumb their noses at you and steal at will. To infringers the only patents that are legitimate are their own -if they have any. Meanwhile, the huge multinationals ship more and more American’s jobs overseas.

    For our position and the changes we advocate to truly reform the patent system, or to join our effort, please visit us at
    or, contact us at [email protected]

  • [Avatar for Stephan Curry]
    Stephan Curry
    April 18, 2016 01:24 pm

    we need more Stan Van Gundy’s speaking out against this anti-troll Lobby since Stan is all vocally upset about LeBron is doing all of these non-called offensive fouls so that the Cavs can face off again against Golden State Dub-Nation

    Daryl Issa now calls trolls same as plaintiffs.
    previously, patent reform Lobby called the trolls as bad dudes disruptive to innovation.
    then, govt says govt should be agnostic on how trolls use their patents.
    then govt says troll term is not helpful.
    what are trolls anyway? speak up, Coach Stan Van Gundy.

  • [Avatar for Stephan Curry]
    Stephan Curry
    April 18, 2016 01:01 pm

    The patent work will continue, but for an increasingly exclusive community. Step-by-step the US patent system is being reshaped deliberately with a distinct “Groundhog Day” approach being applied. I hate to say conspiracy, but it seems to me that a plan is being executed.

    thank you for being bold. bravo.
    all of us need to remember. we were alive in the 1940s and 1950s.
    Our hero patent troll Jerry Lemelson actually help to cause innovation in our industries like the auto industry and manufacturing and high tech by Jerry’s patent troll disruptions. so those patent reformers who says trolls must totally be eradicated, booo to them.

    what would be funny is,….. if this bizzare “the troll” concept was actually put in place or promoted Goebbels-style by the questionable party or parties due to a very very very Shallow reason so that the american patent system mimics the Titanic, and not actually due to Larry Google page wanting to be the only american Keiretsu because Larry is smart enough to know that a keiretsu will not work and will trigger a massive economic downturn in america. Larry and his fellow big competing international corporations boys know a keiretsu is more complicated than it seems. come on, patent reformers, stop it now.

  • [Avatar for Ternary]
    April 18, 2016 11:59 am

    The scary thing is that the entire patent policy of the USA in Congress for the last couple of years pivots around this single and legally bizarre concept of “the troll.” From the perspective of the anti-patent lobby this is an issue that has been leveraged brilliantly. No matter the nuances, detailed critiques, opposing voices, refutations, and reasoned arguments, in this day and age of “headline” shouts and arguments, the anti-patent lobby appears to get away with their troll nonsense.

    Their way eventually means a high cost, low access patent system like in Europe: for the few by the few. If you think I am kidding: look into the cost of obtaining and keeping a patent in Europe. This also explains why many patent attorneys, with Gene as a notable and very vocal exception, do not care too much. The patent work will continue, but for an increasingly exclusive community. Step-by-step the US patent system is being reshaped deliberately with a distinct “Groundhog Day” approach being applied. I hate to say conspiracy, but it seems to me that a plan is being executed.

  • [Avatar for Stephan Curry]
    Stephan Curry
    April 17, 2016 04:45 pm

    night writer@7
    What always gets me about these putzes is that they speak as if they are doing these great things and we patentees are just worms. What do they imagine they are doing that is so great?
    The analogy with the financial industry is very strong. You get these people that have no clue what they are talking about spouting off based on the pseudo-intellectuals from the top schools.
    It all comes down to the fact that almost no one can understand how all this works, so they can just spout off and say whatever they want.

    You are preaching to the choir, my brother in the faith. amen

    what bothers me even more is that patent attorneys did not form a lobby to fight reform when the handful of Valley people decided they will change patent law. ok i should have been less lazy also and should have encouraged the anti-reform lobby to fight the Infringement-Lobby wanting patent reform.

    at least two people in this stanford panel never wrote a patent application (on their own) in their entire lives, but yet started claiming in this stanford summit that they are supposed patent experts who feel the patent system was in crisis and need Drastic patent reform. Of course, Honorable Kappos wrote lots of applications, but Honorable Kappos could have stopped the bleeding here but instead this summit gave Lemley more ammunition to convince the politicos to do patent reform and gave rise to a strong Infringement Lobby.

  • [Avatar for Night Writer]
    Night Writer
    April 17, 2016 04:13 pm

    @6 Stephan thanks. Pretty clear the big internationals owns Darrell.

    What always gets me about these putzes is that they speak as if they are doing these great things and we patentees are just worms. What do they imagine they are doing that is so great?

    The analogy with the financial industry is very strong. You get these people that have no clue what they are talking about spouting off based on the pseudo-intellectuals from the top schools.

    It all comes down to the fact that almost no one can understand how all this works, so they can just spout off and say whatever they want.

  • [Avatar for Stephan Curry]
    Stephan Curry
    April 17, 2016 03:42 pm

    Night writer@5

    Googlers among others are daryl issa funders as shown in accessible information

  • [Avatar for Night Writer]
    Night Writer
    April 17, 2016 03:21 pm

    Who funds Darrel?

  • [Avatar for Night Writer]
    Night Writer
    April 17, 2016 03:20 pm

    The big international corporations will get what they want. What a disgrace these academics are. I am always amazed how they are willing to yap and yap about things they have no real experience with. No frame of reference whatsoever and yet they yap and yap.

  • [Avatar for Appearance of ...]
    Appearance of …
    April 17, 2016 01:09 pm

    It is really very simple. I am a plaintiff. You are a troll. Any questions?

  • [Avatar for Stephan Curry]
    Stephan Curry
    April 17, 2016 11:12 am

    that daryl isol should be Recalled like Gov Davis.
    daryl needs to stop darrelling with the american patent system.

    daryl is friends with those Valley patent reformers who falsely claimed the american patent system is in crisis and who pushed for IPRs and AIA first to file etc and who pushed for validity determinations from district courts to USPTO and who pushed for BRI in PTAB, etc

  • [Avatar for angry dude]
    angry dude
    April 17, 2016 10:34 am

    The Founding Fathers must be spinning in their graves…

    ITC is the ONLY way to stop chinese infringers from making $$$ on the back of American inventors

    What a disgrace

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